Hello, last week we were left in ancient Ethiopia i kept the ancient part as we move back in time towards the Arabian Peninsula. How did they live without an ipod well we know they made music instruments so they must have had plenty of concerts, likely every night and booze wasnt prohibited yet. This has changed when we enter Sufi territory , the mystic arm of Islam and as such not much loved by the fundamentalists thru the ages, a car bomb at their mosque 2 weeks ago is proof of that. Still their asceteic mysticism is acknowledged througout the world.
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Ensemble De Organographia - Music of the Ancient Sumerians, Egyptians and Greeks
Archeological discoveries in the Middle East over the last several decades have brought to light new musical documents that have greatly increased our understanding of ancient music. Texts that describe Babylonian musical notation have been uncovered at Ur and Ashur, and compositions written in this system have been found at Ugarit and Nippur. These discoveries have helped to define a clearer picture of the Sumero-Babylonian musical art, and, while information on the subject of Egyptian musical notation remains obscure by comparison, several verbal descriptions of instrumental performance and several extant musical documents have been identified. Fortunately, Greek compositions and music theory tex`s survive in relatively greater numbers and continue to be identified; recently transcribed musical documents in Greek notation found at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt are heard here for the first time.
The repertoire on this recording, preserved mainly on clay tablets and papyri, dates from the 20th century B.C. to the third century A.D. It includes the musical instructions for the hymn "Lipit-Ištar, King of Justice" which is regarded as the world's oldest surviving example of musical notation. The selections range in varying states of preservation from the nearly perfect Hurrian Hymn 6 to tiny fragments of melody and text.
Music of Ancient Sumerians Egyptians (114mb)
Greek Music from Egypt
01 - Musical Excerpts [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4461] (3:02)
02 - Lament [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4465] (1:42)
03 - Fragment 1 [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4462] (3:09)
04 - Paean [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4466] (1:40)
05 - Trochaic Fragment [Oxyrhynchus papyri 3162] (1:00)
06 - Four Settings from Menander's 'Epitrepontes' [Oxyrhynchus papyri 3705] (1:36)
07 - Excerpts mentioning Eros and Aphrodite [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4462] (4:39)
08 - Musical excerpt [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4467] (3:15)
09 - Hypolydian excerpt [Oxyrhynchus papyri 4464] (2:55)
10 - Fragment 3 [Oxyrhynchus papyri 3161] (1:59)
11 - A Zaluzi to the Gods (Hurrian Hymn 6, copied by Ammurabi) [R.S. 15.30 + 49, 17.387] (3:49)
12 - Hurrian Hymns, 19 & 23 [R.S. 19.149 and 18.282] (1:34)
13 - URḪIYA & an. - Hurrian Hymns, 13 & 12 (copied by Ipšali) [R.S. 19.164d and 19.147] (0:41)
14 - Hurrian Hymn 2 (1:14)
15 - URḪIYA. Hurrian Hymn 8 [R.S. 19.84] (1:21)
16 - PUḪIYA(NA) - Hurrian Hymn 5 [R.S. 14.18] (0:44)
17 - Hurrian Hymn 4, 21, & 22 [R.S. 14.15, 19.154 and 19.164c] (2:32)
18 - Hurrian Hymn 7 & 10 [R.S. 19.155 and 19.148] (1:55)
19 - Hurrian Hymn 16 & 30 [R.S. 19.164a and 19.164b] (2:10)
20 - Musical Instructions for 'Lipit-Ištar, King of Justice' [N. 3354] c. 1950 BC (0:44)
21 - Trumpet Call, after Plutarch (0:33)
22 - Isis Sistrum Rhythm, after Apuleius (0:31)
23 - Theban banquet scene (1:33)
24 - Harp Piece I [Brooklyn Museum] (1:57)
25 - Harp Piece II [Brooklyn Museum] (2:02)
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The word "Sufi", which is derived from the concept of tassawuf, denotes the esoteric currents in Islam which aim at seeking mystic union and the experience of the dissolution of the self in the Divine Essence. These currents appeared in the second century after the hijrah and since then have continued to multiply in various forms in the Islamic world. Both the word tassawuf and "Sufi", which is derived from it, contain the root suf which means wool and refers to the rough woollen garment originally worn by the ascetics as a token of their detachment. The thinker al-Ghazali (450/1058-505/1111), a great Islamic mystic, in his work entitled Ihya 'ulum al-din (Revival of the Sciences of Religion), defined this aim as follows: "To renounce the world in order to lead the life of an ascetic by ridding oneself of material bonds, by emptying the heart of its earthly concerns, and by approaching Almighty God with perfect spiritual diligence".
In one of his Maqamat the story-teller Hariri gives an account of the intense piety which prevailed during the second century after the hijrah in Baghdad, which was a meeting place for writers who sympathized with the ideas of the Sufis, and also in Basra, Kufa, Wasit and elsewhere. At this period Southern Iraq was the scene of a revival of religious fervour which led to the beginnings of the Sufi movements centred round the person of Hassan Basri (died in 110/772), who is regarded as the father of Islamic mysticism. These movements, which started in Iraq, later spread to Syria, Egypt and Anatolia through the founding of two of the oldest orders, the Qadiriyya and the Rifa'iyya. Other movements came into being and influenced one another. This is true of the movement in Khorasan with its Turkish and Syrian ramifications (Mawlawiyya), of that in Egypt and the Maghrib (Shadhiliyya), and of that in Turkestan, which spread to the Ottoman Empire (Bektashiyya). The Indian movement (Chistiyya), however, does not appear to have had any influence on the Arab world.
The Sufi movement came under harsh criticism during the period of political agitation that followed the decline of the Umayyad caliphate and the ascendance of the Abbasids. It was attacked chiefly on the account of its esoteric practices and of being the privilege of an elite circle indulging in gnostic speculations. This weakening of faith was violently condemned by al-Ghazali, who advocated a return to the sources and affirmed the importance of a response of the heart in a direct and vivid experience. This appeal did not go unheeded and Sufism began to be propagated by groups of people who gathered round a spiritual leader, a munshid, a director of conscience, called a shaykh, a bestower of baraka (blessing), who after his death, was elevated to the rank of the saint (sayedna) of his tariqa. Although the word tariqa originally denoted a way, a path to follow, in its religious acceptation it came to signify method, and then order or brotherhood. Hence the appearance in Mesopotamia of the first communities in the history of Islam, that of Qadiriyya founded by Abdulqadir Jilani (died in Baghdad in 561/1166) and that of the Rifa'iyya founded by Ahmad Rifa'i (died in 575/1182). Very little is known about the latter, who left no writings. Born in an Arab family, he spent his life as an ascetic among the fakirs (a synonym of dervishes, the etymological meaning being "poor men") who gathered round him in a marshy region north of Basra called Bata'ih or al-Batiha. Initially the order was called the Bata'ihiyya, but it soon assumed the name of its founder. This here stems from the Turkish movement.
Derviches Tourneurs de Turquie - La Ceremonie des Mevlevi ( 117mb)
01 Na'at-i-mevlânâ - Taksîm (13:15)
02 Pesrev - Birinci selâm (11:48)
03 Ikinci selâm (4:19)
04 çüncü selâm - D-rdüncü selâm - Taksîm (4:47)
05 Niyâz ayini - Taksîm (12:29)
06 La récitation du Coran (5:27)
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